UGC NET Syllabus for Geography | Sociology IQ

UGC NET Syllabus for Geography | Sociology IQ

Unit I – Geomorphology
Unit II – Climatology
Unit III- Oceanography
Unit IV- Geography of Environment
Unit V – Population and Settlement Geography
Unit VI- Geography of Economic Activities and Regional Development
Unit VII – Cultural, Social and Political Geography
Unit VIII – Geographic Thought
Unit IX – Geographical Techniques
Unit X- Geography of India

Continental Drift, Plate Tectonics, Endogenetic and Exogenetic forces.
Denudation and Weathering, Geomorphic Cycle (Davis and Penck), Theories and
Process of Slope Development, Earth Movements (seismicity, folding, faulting
and vulcanicity), Landform Occurrence and Causes of Geomorphic Hazards
(earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides and avalanches)

Composition and Structure of Atmosphere; Insolation, Heat Budget of Earth,
Temperature, Pressure and Winds, Atmospheric Circulation (air-masses, fronts and
upper air circulation, cyclones and anticyclones (tropical and temperate), Climatic
Classification of Koppen & Thornthwaite, ENSO Events (El Nino, La Nina and
Southern Oscillations), Meteorological Hazards and Disasters (Cyclones,
Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hailstorms, Heat and Cold waves Drought and
Cloudburst , Glacial Lake Outburst (GLOF), Climate Change: Evidences and
Causes of Climatic Change in the past, Human impact on Global Climate.

Relief of Oceans, Composition: Temperature, Density and Salinity, Circulation:
Warm and Cold Currents, Waves, Tides, Sea Level Changes, Hazards: Tsunami
and Cyclone

Geography of Environment
Components: Ecosystem (Geographic Classification) and Human Ecology,
Functions: Trophic Levels, Energy Flows, Cycles (geo-chemical, carbon, nitrogen
and oxygen), Food Chain, Food Web and Ecological Pyramid, Human Interaction
and Impacts, Environmental Ethics and Deep Ecology, Environmental Hazards and
Disasters (Global Warming, Urban Heat Island, Atmospheric Pollution, Water
Pollution, Land Degradation), National Programmes and Policies: Legal
Framework, Environmental Policy, International Treaties, International
Programmes and Polices (Brundtland Commission, Kyoto Protocol, Agenda 21,
Sustainable Development Goals, Paris Agreement)

Population and Settlement Geography
Population Geography
Sources of population data (census, sample surveys and vital statistics, data
reliability and errors). World Population Distribution (measures, patterns and
determinants), World Population Growth (prehistoric to modern period).
Demographic Transition, Theories of Population Growth (Malthus, Sadler, and
Ricardo). Fertility and Mortality Analysis (indices, determinants and world
patterns). Migration (types, causes and consequences and models), Population
Composition and Characteristics (age, sex, rural-urban, occupational structure and
educational levels), Population Policies in Developed and Developing Countries.
Settlement Geography
Rural Settlements (types, patterns and distribution), Contemporary Problems of
Rural Settlements ( rural-urban migration; land use changes; land acquisition and
transactions), Theories of Origin of Towns (Gordon Childe, Henri Pirenne, Lewis
Mumford), Characteristics and Processes of Urbanization in Developed and
Developing Countries (factors of urban growth, trends of urbanisation, size,
structure and functions of urban areas). Urban Systems ( the law of the primate city
and rank size rule) Central Place Theories (Christaller and Losch), Internal
Structure of the City, Models of Urban Land Use (Burgess, Harris and Ullman ,
and Hoyt), Concepts of Megacities, Global Cities and Edge Cities, Changing
Urban Forms (peri-urban areas, rural-urban fringe, suburban , ring and satellite
towns), Social Segregation in the City, Urban Social Area Analysis, Manifestation
of Poverty in the City (slums, informal sector growth, crime and social exclusion).

Geography of Economic Activities and Regional Development
Economic Geography
Factors affecting spatial organisation of economic activities (primary, secondary,
tertiary and quarternary), Natural Resources (classification, distribution and
associated problems), Natural Resources Management. World Energy Crises in
Developed and Developing Countries.
Agricultural Geography
Land capability classification and Land Use Planning, Cropping Pattern: Methods
of delineating crop combination regions (Weaver, Doi and Rafiullah), Crop
diversification, Von Thunen’s Model of Land Use Planning. Measurement and
Determinants of Agricultural Productivity, Regional variations in Agricultural
Productivity, Agricultural Systems of the World.
Industrial Geography
Classification of Industries, Factors of Industrial Location; Theories of Industrial
Location (A. Weber, E. M. Hoover, August Losch, A. Pred and D. M. Smith).
World Industrial Regions, Impact of Globalisation on manufacturing sector in Less
Developed Countries, Tourism Industry, World distribution and growth of
Information And Communication Technology (ICT) and Knowledge Production
(Education and R & D) Industries.
Geography of Transport and Trade
Theories and Models of spatial interaction (Edward Ullman and M. E. Hurst)
Measures and Indices of connectivity and accessibility; Spatial Flow Models:
Gravity Model and its variants, World Trade Organisation, Globalisation and
Liberalisation and World Trade Patterns. Problems and Prospects of Inter and Intra
Regional Cooperation and Trade.
Regional Development
Typology of Regions, Formal and Fictional Regions, World Regional Disparities,
Theories of Regional Development(Albert O. Hirschman, Gunnar Myrdal, John
Friedman, Dependency theory of Underdevelopment, Global Economic Blocks,
Regional Development and Social Movements in India

Unit – VII: Cultural, Social and Political Geography
Cultural and Social Geography
Concept of Culture, Cultural Complexes, Areas and Region, Cultural Heritage,
Cultural Ecology. Cultural Convergence, Social Structure and Processes, Social
Well-being and Quality of Life, Social Exclusion, Spatial distribution of social
groups in India (Tribe, Caste, Religion and Language), Environment and Human
Health, Diseases Ecology, Nutritional Status (etiological conditions, classification
and spatial and seasonal distributional patterns with special reference to India)
Health Care Planning and Policies in India, Medical Tourism in India.
Political Geography
Boundaries and Frontiers (with special reference to India), Heartland and Rimland
Theories. Trends and Developments in Political Geography, Geography of
Federalism, Electoral Reforms in India, Determinants of Electoral Behaviour,
Geopolitics of Climate Change, Geopolitics of World Resources, Geo-politics of
India Ocean, Regional Organisations of Cooperation (SAARC, ASEAN, OPEC,
EU). Neopolitics of World Natural Resources.

Unit VIII: Geographic Thought
Contributions of Greek, Roman, Arab, Chinese and Indian Scholars, Contributions
of Geographers (Bernhardus Varenius, Immanuel Kant, Alexander von Humboldt,
Carl Ritter, Scheafer & Hartshorne), Impact of Darwinian Theory on Geographical
Thought. Contemporary trends in Indian Geography: Cartography, Thematic and
Methodological contributions. Major Geographic Traditions (Earth Science, manenvironment relationship, area studies and spatial analysis), Dualisms in
Geographic Studies (physical vs. human, regional vs. systematic, qualitative vs.
quantitative, ideographic vs. nomothetic), Paradigm Shift, Perspectives in
Geography (Positivism, Behaviouralism, Humanism, Structuralism, Feminism and

Unit IX: Geographical Techniques
Sources of Geographic Information and Data (spatial and non-spatial), Types of
Maps, Techniques of Map Making (Choropleth, Isarithmic, Dasymetric,
Chorochromatic, Flow Maps) Data Representation on Maps (Pie diagrams, Bar
diagrams and Line Graph, GIS Database (raster and vector data formats and
attribute data formats). Functions of GIS (conversion, editing and analysis), Digital
Elevation Model (DEM), Georeferencing (coordinate system and map projections
and Datum), GIS Applications ( thematic cartography, spatial decision support
system), Basics of Remote Sensing (Electromagnetic Spectrum, Sensors and
Platforms, Resolution and Types, Elements of Air Photo and Satellite Image
Interpretation and Photogrammetry), Types of Aerial Photographs, Digital Image
Processing: Developments in Remote Sensing Technology and Big Data Sharing
and its applications in Natural Resources Management in India, GPS Components
(space, ground control and receiver segments) and Applications, Applications of
Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion and Inequalities, Sampling, Sampling
Procedure and Hypothesis Testing (chi square test, t test, ANOVA), Time Series
Analysis, Correlation and Regression Analysis, Measurement of Indices, Making
Indicators Scale Free, Computation of Composite Index, Principal Component
Analysis and Cluster Analysis, Morphometric Analysis: Ordering of Streams,
Bifurcation Ratio, Drainage Density and Drainage Frequency, Basin Circularity
Ratio and Form Factor, Profiles, Slope Analysis, Clinographic Curve,
Hypsographic Curve and Altimetric Frequency Graph.

Unit – X: Geography of India
Major Physiographic Regions and their Characteristics; Drainage System
(Himalayan and Peninsular), Climate: Seasonal Weather Characteristics, Climatic
Divisions, Indian Monsoon (mechanism and characteristics), Jet Streams and
Himalayan Cryosphere, Types and Distribution of Natural Resources: Soil,
Vegetation, Water, Mineral and Marine Resources. Population Characteristics
(spatial patterns of distribution), Growth and Composition (rural-urban, age, sex,
occupational, educational, ethnic and religious), Determinants of Population,
Population Policies in India, Agriculture ( Production, Productivity and Yield of
Major Food Crops), Major Crop Regions, Regional Variations in Agricultural
Development, Environmental, Technological and Institutional Factors affecting
Indian Agriculture; Agro-Climatic Zones, Green Revolution, Food Security and
Right to Food. Industrial Development since Independence, Industrial Regions and
their characteristics, Industrial Policies in India. Development and Patterns of
Transport Networks (railways, roadways, waterways, airways and pipelines),
Internal and External Trade (trend, composition and directions), Regional
Development Planning in India, Globalisation and its impact on Indian Economy,
Natural Disasters in India (Earthquake, Drought, Flood, Cyclone, Tsunami,
Himalayan Highland Hazards and Disasters.)


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