AMRUT | Sociology IQ
Atal Mission For Rejuvenation And Urban Transformation (AMRUT)
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) was launched in December 2005 with an outlay of Rs 66,085 crore. The objectives of this scheme were development of Indian cities and empowerment of Urban Local Bodies (ULBS).
The Mission envisaged preparation of City Development Plans (CDPS) and urban reforms at Municipal and State levels. This scheme provided substantial financial assistance to – cities for infrastructure development, civic amenities, housing & slum development, and capacity development.
However, some inadequacies were noticed in the implementation of this programme such as failure of effective urban planning, slow progress in project implementation, delay in securing land for projects, and time delays in securing approval from various regulatory agencies.
Non-budgetary financial support under JNNURM through PPP route was also not leveraged by the State Governments. According to the studies conducted by the Planning Commission, except some good examples in some cities the overall progress in improving service delivery standards has been unsatisfactory. Due to these reasons, the new government has replaced JNNURM with a new mission called AMRUT, under Ministry of Urban Development.
This mission seeks to lay a foundation to enable existing cities to eventually grow into smart cities. It will be implemented in 500 locations with a population of 1 Jakh and above. These include cities situated on main rivers, a few capital cities, and important cities located in hilly areas & tourist spots.
Province will only submit State Annual Action Plans to the Centre for wide concurrence based on which funds will be released. Assistance from the centre for AMRUT will amount to 50 % of project cost for cities and towns with a population of up to a million and 33 % for those with a population of above 10 lakh. Central assistance will be released in three instalments in the ratio of 20:40:40 based on achievements.
AMRUT will emphasize on ensuring basic infrastructure services such as water supply, transport, sewerage and development of parks and green spaces with special provision for meeting the needs of children. Implementation will be linked to promotion of urban reforms such as e-governance, setting up of professional municipal cadre, devolving funds and functions to urban local bodies, review of building bye-laws, upgradation in assessment and collection of municipal taxes, credit rating of urban local bodies, water and energy audit and citizen-centric urban planning.
Like JNNURM, AMRUT also has mechanisms to motivate state governments to reform urban administration. It mandates important developments, such as the development of a cadre of professional municipal administrators and the devolution of funds and functions to city governments, and provides monetary incentives for states that achieve these.
AMRUT gives state governments the flexibility to design schemes and eases central monitoring, improvements over the JNNURM. It keeps the centre’s share of funding for a project at 33-50 %, which would ensure that state governments “own” the projects, use their own funds, and, therefore, work towards their success.